A slideshow on Reported Speech
reported speech (AA)
Open the slideshow by clicking the link above.
A slideshow on Reported Speech
reported speech (AA)
Open the slideshow by clicking the link above.
A cataphoric reference unit refers to another unit that is introduced later on in the text/speech. To understand the unit refered to by a cataphoric reference you would need to look ahead in the text/speech.
An anaphoric reference unit, on the other hand, refers to another unit that was introduced earlier on in the text/speech. To understand the unit refered to by an anaphoric reference you would need to look back in the text/speech.
There are three main types of sentences:
Simple sentences contain only one idea
Simple sentences comprise only one idea, clause and verb group. We say verb group (instead of verb) because a verb group itself can consist of one word (fell, assembled, cooked, won) or more than one word (will buy, had put, should have believed).
In short, simple sentences have:
Conjoined sentences have two (or more) clauses joined together using coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or …)
In short, conjoined (compound) sentences have:
(= He is happy. + He is excited.)
(= She ran fast. She was scared.)
(=They borrowed books from the library. + They didn’t read the books.)
Complex sentences have embedded clauses. i.e. one clause is incorporated into another one
E.g. The clause
can be incorporated into another clause to produce the sentence –
Unlike in conjoined sentences, complex sentences contain clauses of unequal status. i.e. one clause is subordinated into another and functions as a grammatical part of it. The subordinate clause is called an embedded clause and the clause in which it is embedded is called a matrix clause.
Every subordinate clause is embedded in a matrix clause and serves a grammatical function in it.
In short, complex sentences have:
The infinitive with ‘to‘ is used to talk about people’s purposes, the reasons why they do things.
Sara is going to the shop to buy a new CD.
(= because she wants to buy a new CD)
I’m going to Africa to have a vacation.
(= because I want to have a vacation)
DO NOT USE “for” before the infinitive of purpose!
Sara is going to the shop for to buy a new CD. *
I’m going to Africa for to have a vacation. *
Not all languages have inflectional morphology. Some languages have little or no morphology. Still other languages have relatively complex words with distinct parts, each representing a morpheme.
Traditionally these 3 types of languages have been identified as :
In such languages:
Chinese is an oft-cited example of a language with isolating morphology. Chinese uses separate words to express certain content that an inflecting language can do only by inflection
English permits both inflectional possessive
the boy’s hat
and what is called an analytical possessive
hat of the boy
Chinese permits only the equivalent of hat of the boy
Chinese also lacks tense markers and does not mark gender, number or case distinctions on pronouns:
I just will give you that one cup tea
I am about to bring you a cup of tea
In these languages:
but characteristically they are :
Greenlandic Eskimo is an example of an agglutinating language
His new kayak has been destroyed
Objective tests measure one’s ability to remember facts & figures understanding of course materials. These tests are often designed to make test-takers think independently. Good objective tests require test-takers to employ high level critical reasoning and make fine discriminations to determine the best answer
Objective Tests. ‘
The most common objective test questions are:
The most common is the multiple choice question (MCQ) test where students must select the correct answer from a number of possible answers.
The incorrect answers in MCQs are termed distractors.
Distractors should cotnain:
MCQs are usually used to test the test-taker’s ability to:
Main strengths of MCQs:
Main weaknesses of MCQs:
Writing MCQs is a relatively difficult task. However, the effort expended in item construction is rewarded by the ease and reliability of marking
MCQs must have:
a clear and unambiguous stem
a correct answer
several (usually 3 or 4) distractors which appear plausible to students who do not know the correct answer
coherence to the content matter to be examined
Tips for constructing MCQs:
Phrase structure rules are ‘formulae’ that describe a given language’s syntax. Phrase structure rules break a natural language sentence down into its constituent parts (also known as syntactic categories. Phrase structure rules are usually of the form:
meaning that the constituent A is separated into the two sub-constituents B and C
This means that a sentence ‘S’ is separated into the two sub-constituents NP and VP in the order shown. Sub-constituents that are optional within a constituent is indicated in brackets:
This means that an ‘NP’ may be separated into the sub-constituents DET, AP and N; and that they would appear in that order if they do.
A Table of Specifications is a two-way chart which describes the topics to be covered in a test and the number of items or points which will be associated with each topic. Sometimes the types of items are described as well.
The purpose of a Table of Specifications is to identify the achievement domains being measured and to ensure that a fair and representative sample of questions appear on the test.
As it is impossible, in a test, to assess every topic from every aspect, a Table of Specifications allows us to ensure that our test focuses on the most important areas and weights different areas based on their importance / time spent teaching. A Table of Specifications also gives us the proof we need to make sure our test has content validity.
Tables of Specifications are designed based on:
topics covered in class
amount of time spent on those topics
textbook chapter topics
emphasis and space provided in the text
A Table of Specification could be designed in 3 simple steps:
1. identify the domain that is to be assessed
2. break the domain into levels (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, application …)
3. construct the table
The more detailed a table of specifications is, the easier it is to construct the test.
A phrase is a group of words acting as a single part of speech and not containing both a subject and a verb.
It is a part of a sentence, and does not express a complete thought.
Noun phrases must have a Noun (or Pronoun) and may or may not have other modifiers
An Adjective phrase must consist an adjective (A) and may or may not have an adverb phrase (AdvP)
Adverb phrases must consist an Adverb (Adv) and may or may not have a degree adverb (deg)
Adverb phrases may be dominated by either a VP, an AP or the sentence.
Adverb phrases that modifies a whole sentence can be moved to different positions in the sentence without altering the meaning or making it ungrammatical.
Sentence adverbs often express an attitude or evaluation (e.g. clearly, frankly, actually …)
Preposition Phrases must consist of a preposition (P) and may or may not include an NP
Verb phrases must consist a verb and may or may not have other phrases within it
A piece of language is said to be coherent (therefore discourse) if it has a discernible, unified meaning.
A piece of discourse is said to be cohesive if its components (ie. sentences/phrases/words) are bound together through linguistic and non-linguistic features to form a unified whole.
The linguistic features used to link one word/phrase/sentence to another are called formal links.
Some common formal links are:
The most obvious example of formal link is third person pronouns
In a piece of language, cohesion is achieved by using these referring expressions that direct the hearer/reader to look elsewhere for their interpretation.
Reference expressions can be:
Endophoric references are linguistic references to something within the same text.
There are two types of endophoric references:
Anaphoric references refer back to another unit that was mentioned before.
Aiminaibee asked Thakuru to buy her a diamond ring.
Cataphoric references refer ahead to another unit that is mentioned later.
Waving at him happily, Thakuru saw Aiminaibee come out.
Exophoric references refer to entities outside the text, in the context of the utterance or speaker.
That is where Aiminaibee first saw the Foolhudhiguhandi.
(said while pointing to the place)
Repetition of a key term or phrase in the text helps to focus your ideas and to keep your reader/listener on track.
The problem with modern art is that it is not easily understood by most people. Modern art is deliberately abstract, and that means it often leaves the viewer wondering what she is looking at.
Lexical chains are also a form of repetition but without repeating the exact same phrase/word.
i.e. use different words that are lexically related (e.g. hypernyms)
Myths are an important part of a country’s heritage. Such traditional narratives are, in short, a set of beliefs that are a very real force in the lives of the people who tell them.
Cohesion is often achieved by substituting special words for ones that have already been used.
The most common substitutes used in English are
Each of these are used to substitute for a different type of clause
‘one’ is used to substitute for nouns / noun phrases:
I left the school and went to the one in Thuraakunu.
I left Hithadhoo secondary school and went to the Thuraakunu one.
I left the Hithadhoo secondary school with many students and went to the one with few students.
I left the Hithadhoo secondary school with few students and went to the Thuraakunu one with few students.
Verbs are substituted with ‘do’.
Since do is a verb (and an irregular one at that) is also has the forms does, did, done and doing.
I have not finished yet, when I do you can start.
I like coffee and so does he.
The word ‘so‘ is often used to substitute for a whole clause:
Thakuru: “We’ll be watching you close, smart guy.”
Haadi: “I hope so. You might learn something.”
Thakuru: “I think we have got rid of him for good.”
Aiminaibee: “You really think so?”
In certain contexts it is possible to leave out a word/phrase rather than repeat it.
This device is called ellipsis.
A child learns to speak almost ‘by chance’. He imitates his parents without knowing why < >.
Students continue to wear faded jeans to class even after being told not to < >.
Connectives are words/phrases used to indicate a specific connection between different parts of a text.
Various kinds of words and phrases can function as connectives:
It posed several problems for me, but it was all worthwhile.
It posed several problems for me; nevertheless, it was all worthwhile.
In spite of the severe problems it posed for me, it was all worthwhile.
There are 4 basic types of connectives:
Addition connectives (AC)
adds on to the idea presented before (also, and)
Opposition connectives (OC)
contrasts with the idea presented before (but, nevertheless )
Cause connectives (CC)
shows a causal connection with the ideas presented before (therefore, since)
Time connectives (TC)
shows a sequence or simultaneous actions (first, finally)