Plosives & Stops
A stop or plosive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. The term plosive is reserved for oral (non-nasal) stops.
A nasals are produced when the velum is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation.
Flaps & Taps
In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator is thrown against another. The main difference between a flap and a stop consonant is that in a flap, there is no buildup of air pressure behind the place of articulation, and consequently no release burst.
Fricatives are produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. In the articulation of approximants, articulatory organs produce a narrowing of the vocal tract, but leave enough space for air to flow without much audible turbulence.
Affricates are produced with a constriction of complete closure followed by a release phase in which friction occurs.
There are two affricates in English:
voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
voiced palato-alveolar affricate
Laterals are “L”-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue.